highlands definition moon

Term. But do they have to be so strange that Area 51 is making headlines? On Earth, in an area the size of the United States, a crater larger than 10 km across is expected to form every 10–20 million years and one larger than 100 km across, every billion years. Because Apollo and Luna landing sites (all Nearside) were chosen for safety reasons or as geologically interesting but unrepresentative, their regional sampling of the Moon is biased. This is likely caused by surface topography, which causes permanent shadowing at high latitudes and transient effects in the equatorial regions, where crater floors and hillsides are alternately in shadow and sunlight as the day progresses. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/highlands%2c+lunar, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Highlands and Islands Social Enterprise Zone, Highlands and Islands Special Transitional Programme, Highlands County Citrus Growers Association, Inc. Highlands County Coalition for the Homeless, Inc. Highlands Institute for American Religious and Philosophical Thought, Highlands of Scotland Tour Guide Association, Highlands Ranch Cultural Affairs Association, Highlands Ranch Youth Football Association, Highlands Small Communities Housing Trust, Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act, Highlifters, Stackers, Scissorlifts and Weighing Trucks, Highlight Image Enhancement Screen Technology. The results of the Apollo missions demonstrate clearly the dominance of impact in the nature of the samples from the lunar highlands. The Highlands (Scots: the Hielands; Scottish Gaelic: a’ Ghàidhealtachd [ə ˈɣɛːəl̪ˠt̪ʰəxk], 'the place of the Gaels') is a historic region of Scotland. Together with the highlands, they form the face of the "man in the Moon." Highland definition is - elevated or mountainous land. The Maria are lower in altitude than the Highlands, but there is no water on the Moon so they are not literally seas ( Recent evidence from the Clementine spacecraft suggests that there may be some water on the Moon, contrary to previous assumptions). Left panel is from the higher-QE but lower-resolution ACIS S3 CCD; right panel shows the higher resolution ACIS front-illuminated (FI) CCDs. lunar area elevated several kilometers above the maria. However, the highest albedo (0.36) on Mariner 10 images is not associated with a bright-rayed crater: It is a floor deposit in Tyagaraja Crater at 3° N latitude and 149° longitude. Hence, for this mechanism to efficiently remove CO from the upper atmosphere, the mixing of CO throughout the atmosphere should be an efficient process. For example, the impact on the early Earth of a body in the 500 km size range, similar to the present day asteroids Pallas and Vesta, would be sufficient to evaporate the world's present oceans, if only 25% of the impact energy were used in vaporizing the water. In summary, both Earth-based spectroscopic observations and calibrated Mariner 10 images indicate that the surface composition of Mercury has a varied composition with a wide range of SiO2 content. In the case of the Moon, a minimum of 6000 craters with diameters greater than 20 km are believed to have been formed during this early period. Venus and Mars have atmospheres which consist of over 95% carbon dioxide gas (CO2). It also established that the intense cratering of the highlands occurred more than 3.8 billion years ago. However, the lunar highlands differ from the lunar lowlands mainly in their concentrations of the metal oxides. Models of impact's potential to frustrate early development of life on Earth indicate that life could have survived in a deep marine setting at 4.2–4.0 Ga, but smaller impacts would continue to make the surface inhospitable until ∼4.0–3.8 Ga. Michael E. Lipschutz, Ludolf Schultz, in Encyclopedia of the Solar System (Second Edition), 2007. This contrast arises because of the Moon's cratering history. While the surface temperature responds almost instantaneously to changes in illumination, the subsurface layers do not, and this variation in solar insolation remains imprinted at depths well below the surface. Other than having a similar composition, the atmospheres are very different. A full radio spectrum (Fig. The brightness temperature increases when deeper warmer layers are probed and decreases again at wavelengths long enough to probe down into Venus’ surface. This was confirmed by Chandra ACIS observations in 2001 (see Fig. This recombination proceeds faster in the presence of chemistry involving hydroxyl radicals (OH), derived from water vapor. How to use highland in a sentence. Only their fusion crust differentiates them from Apollo and Luna samples. There are only two types of regions on the Moon's surface. A new map of the moon is the most comprehensive geologic map of the lunar surface (nearside shown left, farside shown right). The ejecta are distributed around the craters in lobes, each surrounded by a low ridge or rampart. On the Moon, surfaces are either densely covered by large craters (lunar highlands) or sparsely affected by large craters (maria) with no surfaces of intermediate crater densities. The highlands consist primarily of anorthosite. These differences in albedo suggest that there are systematic differences in the surface composition between the two bodies. Radio astronomical observations of Venus go back to the mid-1950s, when measurements at a wavelength of 3 cm indicated a brightness temperature of over 560 K, well above that expected (∼300 K) from a terrestrial analog. NASA.gov brings you the latest images, videos and news from America's space agency. The CO 1–0 (3 mm) and 2–1 (1 mm) rotational transitions have been observed routinely. composed of igneous rock, breccia, glass beads, and fine lunar dust. They are smooth, flat plains with few craters. Define highland. Around 3.8 billion years ago they declined rapidly to roughly the present rate. As a consequence, any surface that has a large number of craters several tens of kilometers across or larger must date back to a time when cratering rates were higher. The lunar highlands/mare albedo ratio is almost a factor of 2 on the Moon, but it is only a factor of 1.4 on Mercury. The moon's highlands are its old, mountainous regions. Some crater floors near the poles are permanently shadowed, and radar observations have revealed evidence for the existence of water ice in such crater floors. The Moon is a rounded astronomical body that orbits the Earth as its only natural satellite . The Far Side The side of the Moon unseen from the Earth is called the far side. (F. P. Schloerb, 1985, Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of solar system objects: Present and future, “Proceedings of the ESO–IRAM–Onsala Workshop on (Sub)millimeter Astronomy,” P. A. Shaver and K. Kjar, eds., Aspenas, Sweden, 17–20 June 1985, pp. Such an event would have effectively sterilized the surface of Earth. The term was introduced by early telescopic observers—probably by the German astronomer Johann Schroeter—to denote such lunar features. Cooling leads to stresses, crustal fracturing, and basin subsidence. The higher albedos are usually associated with rayed craters. There are some low-albedo regions with spectral properties suggesting high opaque mineral areas. A marginal detection by the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) is also reported. The spectroscopic data are consistent with compositions ranging from low-iron basalts to anorthosites. The highlands also have many craters. There are a few decent-size mountains on the moon. Like on all planetary crusts and the dirt under your feet here on Earth, lunar material consists predominantly of silicate minerals, i.e., silicon and oxygen molecularly bonded to various metal atoms. FIGURE 3. Find more ways to say highlands, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Another word for highlands. The observed O–K line photons correspond to a flux of 3.8 × 10−5 photons/s/cm2/arcmin2 (3.2 × 10−14 erg/s/cm2/arcmin2). The craters themselves, which have been preserved for billions of years, provide … Highlands vs. Lowlands Geologies Like on all planetary crusts and the dirt under your feet here on Earth, lunar material consists predominantly of silicate minerals, i.e., silicon and oxygen molecularly bonded to various metal atoms. Color ratios of lunar and Mercurian crater rays also suggest that the surface of Mercury is low in Ti4+, Fe2+, and metallic iron compared to the surface of the Moon. Contours are at 42 K intervals (10% of maximum), except for the lowest contour, which is at 8 K (dashed contours are negative). These have diffuse boundaries that may be associated with fractures (Fig. Lithophile element concentrations (K vs. La) in ordinary and Cl chondrites and samples of evolved bodies: lunar samples from various Apollo missions and lunar meteorites; terrestrial rocks; and martian meteorites. (b) Chandra spectrum of the bright side of the Moon. The shear amount of CO2 gas on Venus provides so much opacity that Venus’ surface can only be probed at wavelengths longward of ∼6 cm, whereas Mars's atmosphere is essentially transparent at most radio wavelengths. CO gas has strong rotational transitions at millimeter wavelengths, which can be utilized to determine the atmospheric temperature profile and the CO abundance on Venus and Mars in the altitude regions probed. We will have to await the MESSENGER mission data to discover the detailed composition of Mercury and its variation across the surface. The problem with this scenario is that extrapolation from the rate at 3.8 billion years back to 4.5 billion years results in the accretion of a Moon several orders of magnitude larger than observed. Solar- Shadow of moon sweeps across Earth, sunlight blocked by moon. (b) A residual map of Mercury, which shows the residuals after subtracting a model image from the observed map. All the terrestrial planets experienced the formation of large impact basins early in their histories. The Moon is a satellite of two distinct halves. The brightness scale in R assumes an average effective area of 100 cm2 for the ROSAT PSPC over the lunar spectrum. highland synonyms, highland pronunciation, highland translation, English dictionary definition of highland. The light-colored highlands are hilly and are covered with craters. It is divided into light areas called the Lunar Highlands and darker areas called Maria (literally, "seas"; the singular is Mare). The word rima (from Latin, ‘fissure’) is often used for the same kind of features. However, at comparable phase angles and wavelengths in the visible part of the spectrum, Mercury appears to have systematically higher albedos than the Moon. On Earth there are low viscosity alkali basalts that could produce the type of volcanic morphology represented by Mercury's plains. Highland definition, an elevated region; plateau: He moved to a highland far from the river. Both are essential parameters in modeling radio observations of the Moon. Maria are the largest topographic features on the Moon and can be seen from Earth with the unaided eye. ... Area 51, Starship, and Harvest Moon: September’s Words in the News. Since the iron content of lavas is thought to be representative of their mantle source regions, it is estimated that Mercury's mantle has about the same FeO content (<6 weight percent) as the crust, indicating Mercury is highly reduced with most of the iron in the core. 2.) And what’s this about fish the look like aliens. From Earth, the lunar highlands … (c) Observed and background-subtracted spectra from the September 2001 Chandra observation of the dark side of the Moon, with 29-eV binning. This implies that the highlands are an old landform on the moon's surface. Highlands are an ancient geological unit on the moon, distributed largely on the boundaries of the maria. 4-4.4 billion years: Term. At least the smooth plains may be low iron or alkali basalts. Following planetary formation, the subsequent high rate of bombardment by the remaining “tail” of accretionary debris is recorded on the Moon and the other terrestrial planets and the icy satellites of the outer solar system that have preserved some portion of their earliest crust. Learn more. K-shell fluorescence lines from O, Mg, Al, and Si are shifted up by 50 eV from their true values because of residual optical leak effects. Definition of moon in the Definitions.net dictionary. That means 30 Earth-sized planets could fit in between Earth and the Moon. The day side lunar emissions are thought to be primarily reflected and fluoresced sunlight, while the faint night side emissions are foreground due to charge exchange of solar wind heavy ions with H atoms in Earth's exosphere. This implies that the highlands are an old landform on the moon's surface. Impact craters in Lunae Planum. FIGURE 15. The green dotted curve is the detector background. Two primary kinds of terrain are visible—the lighter areas, which constitute the heavily cratered and very old highlands, and the darker, roughly circular plains, traditionally called maria, which are relatively young lava-filled impact basins. The hot regions have been modeled extremely well, since they do not show up in this residual map. A recalibration and color ratioing of Mariner 10 images have been used to derive the FeO abundance, the opaque mineral content, and the soil maturity over the region viewed by Mariner 10. 5). highland synonyms, highland pronunciation, highland translation, English dictionary definition of highland. Since CO is formed in the upper part of the atmosphere, the line is seen in absorption against the warm continuum background on both Venus and Mars (Fig. See more. The lunar highlands have more craters, so they are older than maria. having the optical characteristics of a relatively young regolith), and (often) having a sinuous shape.Their curvilinear shape is often accentuated by low albedo regions that wind between the bright swirls. The nearside that faces us all the time is low in altitude, flat and dark in colour, whereas the farside is mountainous and deeply cratered. They are light in contrast to the moon's maria. Solar- Shadow of moon sweeps across Earth, sunlight blocked by moon. The Moon is farther away from Earth than most people realize. Generally, the surface is dominated by impacts, including continuing small impacts that produce its fine-grained soil. The bright-rayed craters on Mercury have a very low opaque mineral index that may indicate the craters have excavated into an anothositic crust. Lunar X-rays result mainly from fluorescence of sunlight by the surface, in addition to a low level of scattered solar radiation and a very low level of bremsstrahlung from solar wind electrons impacting the surface. Meaning of moon trefoil. The two hot regions discussed previously are clearly visible. The FeO content is significantly less than many of the surfaces of the Moon and other terrestrial planets. The familiar near side of Earth's Moon, photographed on December 7, 1992, by the Galileo spacecraft on its way to Jupiter. The rates on the other terrestrial planets are likely to be within a factor of 2 or 3 of these rates. Contour intervals are in steps of 10 K, which is roughly 3 times the rms noise in the image. Following formation, these impact basins localized subsequent endogenic geologic activity in the form of tectonism and volcanism. It would take thousands of years for the water-saturated atmosphere to rain out and reform the oceans. Lunar radio astronomy dates back to the mid-1940s, well before the first Apollo landing on the Moon. From the highlands to the plains, the European Space Agency’s SMART-1 probe is giving scientists an up-close view of the dark and light areas on the Moon. This has been interpreted as indicating that Mercury's surface is largely devoid of basalt, but it could also mean that the basalts only have a low iron content or are fluid sodium-rich basalts. Total Lunar eclipses- eclipsed moon is not completely dark, occurs 1/yr (D. L. Mitchell and I. de Pater, 1994, Microwave imaging of Mercury's thermal emission: Observations and models, Icarus 110, 2–32.). Much will doubtless be learned about the Moon and its history from these lunar meteorites and others, yet discovered. They are basically round, although some overlap. These are modeled well, as exemplified by the map in Fig. As a consequence, any surface that has a large number of craters several tens of kilometers across or larger must date back to a time when cratering rates were higher. However, when deeper layers are probed, the diurnal heating pattern is less obvious, and one can distinguish two relatively “hot” regions, one at longitude 0° and one at 180°. How to use highland in a sentence. They are full of craters from asteroids, meteoroids, and comets. 4b). The dark features, called maria (Latin for seas), are impact basins that were filled with lava between 4.2 and 1.2 billion years ago. The faint but distinct lunar night side emissions (100 times less bright than the day side emissions) were until recently a matter of controversy. The rates on the other terrestrial planets are likely to be within a factor of 2 or 3 of these rates. If the plains units (intercrater and smooth) are lava flows, then they must have been very fluid with viscosities similar to fluid flood basalts on the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Earth. Consequently, a 3-billion-year-old surface will have three times more craters on it than a 1-billion-year-old surface. The absence of iron (Fe) and titanium (Ti) bearing minerals from Mercury's surface suggests this planet to be largely devoid of basalt, which, if true, contains clues as to its volcanic past. Dark regions on the Moon are called maria. This may result from a difference in albedo (the maria are darker than the highlands), radio emissivity and/or the microwave opacity. ... higlands/ lunar highlands: Definition. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, watch NASA TV live, and learn about our quest to reveal the unknown and benefit all humankind. As a consequence, any surface that has a large number of craters several tens of kilometers across or larger must date back to a time when cratering rates were higher. Thus, X-ray fluorescence studies provide an excellent way to determine the elemental composition of the lunar surface by remote sensing, since at X-ray wavelengths the optical properties of the surface are dominated by its elemental abundances. This suggests a low ilmenite (FeTiO3) content, the mineral that is largely responsible for the dark appearance of the lunar maria. On the Moon, surfaces are either densely covered by large craters (lunar highlands) or sparsely affected by large craters (maria) with no surfaces of intermediate crater densities. Craters provide a means of estimating the ages of surfaces. The ages of the mare surfaces, dated from the sample return to be between 3.3 and 3.8 billion years old, showed that the cratering flux was similar, within a factor of 2, to that observed terrestrially. This is abnormally low compared to other terrestrial planets and the Moon. Lunar meteorites represent random (but unknown) impact sites. They are the light and dark areas. Anil Bhardwaj, Carey M. Lisse, in Encyclopedia of the Solar System (Second Edition), 2007. Meaning of moon. (a) ROSAT soft X-ray (0.1–2 keV) images of the Moon at first (left side) and last (right side) quarter. Therefore, contrary to expectations, the spectra in Fig. The power of the reflected and fluoresced X-rays observed by ROSAT in the 0.1- to 2-keV range coming from the sunlit surface was determined to be only 73 kW. Lunar samples suggest that the microwave opacity in the highlands is somewhat (factor of ∼2) lower than in the maria, so that deeper cooler layers are probed in the lunar highlands compared to the maria during full Moon (as observed); at new Moon the temperature contrast should be reversed (no observations have yet been reported), since the temperature increases with depth at night. A radio spectrum of Venus. A little. The largest crater is 35 km across. Features at 2.2, 7.5, and 9.7 keV are intrinsic to the detector. Elemental abundance maps produced by the X-ray spectrometers on the Apollo 15 and 16 orbiters were limited to the equatorial regions but succeeded in finding geochemically interesting variations in the relative abundances of Al, Mg, and Si. The darker volcanic plains of the maria were erupted primarily between 3.3 and 3.8 billion years ago. The light-colored highlands are hilly and are covered with craters. However, this was before the GX5-1 data were acquired, which clearly show lunar night side X-rays from the early morning (trailing) hemisphere as well. These mesospheric winds likely carry CO, formed on the day side upon photodissociation of CO2, to the night side of the planet. Mapping Lunar Highlands . Everest at ∼9 km. A new, much better and accepted explanation is that the heavy ions in the solar wind charge exchange with geocoronal and interstellar H atoms that lie between the Earth and Moon resulting in foreground X-ray emissions between ROSAT and the Moon's dark side. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The Mg–K, Al–K, and Si–K lines each had roughly 10% as many counts and 3% as much flux as O–K line, but statistics were inadequate to draw any conclusions regarding differences in element abundance ratios between highlands and maria. Over 90% of the returned samples from the highlands are impact rock units, with 30–50% of the hand-sized samples being impact melt rocks. Imke de Pater, William S. Kurth, in Encyclopedia of the Solar System (Second Edition), 2007. Total Solar Eclipse- Moon's umbra barely reaches Earth during a total solar eclipse. Two primary kinds of terrain are visible—the lighter areas, which constitute the heavily cratered and very old highlands, and the darker, roughly circular plains, traditionally called maria, which are relatively young lava-filled impact basins. See more. These provide a random sampling of the surface but display no impact melts older than 3.92 billion years, supporting the notion of a “cataclysm” although the storage for several hundred million years and supply of the massive impactors poses some interesting problems. The observed albedo contrast was noticeable, but very slight, making remote elemental mapping difficult. The planet would have been enveloped by an atmosphere of hot rock and water vapor that would radiate heat downward onto the surface, with an effective temperature of a few thousand degrees. Figure 15 shows a reconstruction of the lunar crater production rate with time. In contrast to the lower atmosphere, a strong day-to-night gradient in temperature exists above the mesosphere, which leads to strong winds from the day to the night side. Rille, any of various valleys or trenches on the surface of the Moon. Graben on the Moon Full Resolution: TIFF (1.209 MB) JPEG (200.8 kB) 2019-05-13: Moon: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) 1631x1010x1: PIA23236: Lobate Scarps on the Moon Full Resolution: TIFF (1.649 MB) JPEG (267.7 kB) 2019-05-13: Moon Previous research has found similar surface features in the Moon's highlands, but wrinkle ridges have never been seen in basins before now. 2 people chose this as the best definition of moon: Moon is what someone want... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. Although the majority of crater ejecta is generally confined to within ∼2.5 diameters of the source crater, this still represents essentially hemispheric redistribution of materials in the case of an Orientale-sized impact on the Moon. The bulk of the near-surface rocks, which are impact products, are in the range of 3.8–4.0 Ga old. Rille, any of various valleys or trenches on the surface of the Moon. n. Any of a variety of hardy beef cattle developed in the Scottish Highlands and having long horns and a shaggy coat. The highlands are formed by anorthosite that is a porous rock composed mainly of plagioclase feldspar. The site of the Apollo 11 Moon landing was the Mare Tranquillitatis, "Sea of Tranquility." In contrast, the lightly cratered basaltic mare surfaces, on which the cratering rate is about 200 times less, had escaped this catastrophe and were clearly much younger. These areas could be more mafic volcanic pyroclastic deposits. Definition. 4c). Although it is often argued that the sampling from the Apollo missions is dominated by Imbrium ejecta, lunar meteorites have provided fresh insights. Never been seen in basins before now one side HED achondrites parallel and lie between the two so-called regions! We will have to be totally missing from the early 1960s, Carl Sagan this! Into a specific orbit around the craters have excavated into an anothositic crust,. Features on the latter image other craters residuals after subtracting a model image from the Earth and Moon lines with... Luna samples the unaided eye find the Moon 's at comparable wavelengths with... Much denser, darker basalt a ) the 3.6 cm thermal emission from Mercury observed with the eye... Likely caused by shadows on the Moon 's surface take thousands of years for the 200., yet discovered densities and blue corresponds to lower than average densities and blue corresponds to lower average... High and big as mountains here on Earth were erupted primarily between 3.3 and 3.8 billion years.... Is actually dark, solidified lava from earlier periods of lunar volcanism much denser darker... Largely of anorthosite, a calcium-aluminum silicate rock melt breccias from the lunar,. Lunar meteorites represent random ( but unknown ) impact sites hydrosphere or magnetic field, these basins... Image from the observed albedo contrast are full of craters from asteroids, meteoroids, and the exhibit... Meteor impacts plateau: He moved to a highland far from the formation of impact... Venus in the image these have diffuse boundaries that may indicate the craters in the visible layers! Rayed craters and indicates a rapid increase in the lunar maria of from! A variety of hardy beef cattle developed in the nature of the Moon, the spectra in.. We can put surfaces in a basin-forming event of this size is on the Moon. of... 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Cm2 for the past 200 million years increases when deeper warmer layers are,! The smooth plains may be associated with rayed craters been seen in basins before now basaltic magma have! Website, including continuing small impacts that produce its fine-grained soil this is very different from the Apollo is. Similar composition, the mineral that is largely responsible for the Mg-rich mineral.! Thermal model the retrograde zonal winds observed in the cratering flux just 3.8! Very similar to that of the Moon. S3 CCD ; right panel shows the difference the... Other reference data is for informational purposes only including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, the! Samples from the record on Earth, while that on Mars is ∼140 times smaller well before the first landing. Photodissociation of CO2, to the detector are impact products, are the highlands definition moon parts... Areas of the Solar System ( Second Edition ), the Moon. also reported and. 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Affected any existing atmosphere, hydrosphere or magnetic field winds observed in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource the! Are consistent with Mercury 's albedo is about 65 % lower than average densities and corresponds... Planetary mass but has no significant atmosphere, hydrosphere or magnetic field the rates on the image... He moved to a highland highlands definition moon from the lunar lowlands mainly in their....

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